Monday Music Surprise

Hey DixieI have been searching for this song for the past two hours, NO JOY! I can’t even find the album it was on. So I give you the song as done by the original artist. (Be the first to find a source / link for me I will dedicate a post to you☺)

Hey Dixie – Dobie Gray

L.A. New York bound
Sure does bring me down
Seem like something’s talking to me
Sayin’ you’ve been here too long
Singin’ that same ol’ song
Got to get it on
Down in Dixie
Hey Dixie
Do I hear you calling me?
Hey Dixie
Do I hear you calling me?
Hey Dixie
Do I hear you, do I hear you?
Hey Dixie do I hear you calling me?
Do I hear you calling me?
Music in the streets
Seedlings smelling sweet
Something I can get so close to
Yeah, the sunshine is shining bright
Whippoorwills in the night
Singing songs
Down in Dixie
Hey Dixie
I can hear you calling me
Hey Dixie
I can hear you calling me
Oh Dixie
I can hear you I can hear you
Oh Dixie
I can hear you calling me
I can hear you calling me
Good times waiting there
Honeysuckle in the air
Love is free down by the river
Oh my delta moon filled sky
Love’s gonna make me high
Got to get it on
Down in Dixie
Oh Dixie
I can hear you hear you
Oh Dixie
I can hear you calling me
Oh Dixie
I can hear you I can hear you
Oh Dixie
I can hear you calling me
Oh Dixie
I can hear you hear you
Oh Dixie
I can hear you calling me
Oh Dixie
I can hear you I can hear you
Oh Dixie
I can hear you calling me

Dobie Gray, 'Drift Away' Singer, Dies at 71 | Hollywood Reporter

Today in History


California Dems demand John Wayne airport be renamed | News BreakCalifornifuckedup Democrats in Orange County are demanding that the county’s John Wayne Airport be renamed and all likenesses of Wayne be removed from the airport, over “racist and bigoted statements” made by the American icon decades ago.

“The Democratic Party of Orange County condemns John Wayne’s racist and bigoted statements, and calls for John Waynes’ name and likeness to be removed from the Orange County airport, and calls on the OC Board of Supervisors to restore its original name: Orange County Airport,” the resolution, passed Friday, says.

The resolution, first reported by the Los Angeles Times, calls on the Orange County Board of Supervisors to reverse the 1979 decision to rename it after Duke, and cites remarks he made in a 1971 interview with Playboy.

“I believe in white supremacy until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility. I don’t believe in giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people,” he said in that interview nearly 50 years ago.

White working-class nostalgia, explained by John Wayne - Vox“What goes in corn must come out corn.”

“I don’t feel guilty about the fact that five or 10 generations ago these people were slaves,” he said at another point in the interview.

There have been a number of pushes to rename the airport as a result of those comments after they resurfaced. Wayne’s defenders have said it is unfair to judge him based off remarks made nearly 50 years ago, and when he is no longer alive to defend or even retract them.

The latest push comes amid a movement across the country to tear down monuments and rename buildings and institutions that are named after people deemed to have held racist views or committed racist acts.

The Democratic resolution hails a “national movement to remove white supremacist symbols and names is reshaping American institutions, monuments, businesses, nonprofits, sports leagues and teams, as it is widely recognized that racist symbols produce lasting physical and psychological stress and trauma particularly to Black communities, people of color and other oppressed groups, and the removal of racist symbols provides a necessary process for communities to remember historic acts of violence and recognize victims of oppression.

“John Wayne is not dead, he’s frozen and as soon as we find a cure for cancer we’re going to thaw out ‘The Duke’ he’s going to be pretty pissed off. You know why? Have you ever taken a cold shower, well myltiply that by about 15 million times!” *

*Denis Leary

The Orwellian Nightmare is just beginning.

Psychologists Push to Classify Individuals Resisting Coronavirus Edicts as Mentally Ill. Psychologists are producing research referring to individuals who have resisted the mass hysteria resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic as mentally ill, claiming that they are more likely to exhibit psychopathic behavior.

A study published in the journal Social Psychology and Personality Science is attempting to stigmatize those with the courage to stand up against the mob during coronavirus mania.

“On March 31, 2020, Dr. Deborah Birx, the coordinator of the U.S. government’s Coronavirus Task Force, said, ‘There’s no magic bullet. There’s no magic vaccine or therapy. It’s just behaviors. Each of our behaviors, translating into something that changes the course of this viral pandemic over the next 30 days.’ My experience as a psychological scientist as well as a practicing psychologist has convinced me that the importance of psychology and behavior in the prevention and management of a wide range of health problems is enormous,” said study author Pavel S. Blagov, who works as an associate professor and director with the Personality Laboratory at Whitman College

“This includes personality, or the study of important ways in which people differ. It was clear from reports in the media very early in the COVID-19 pandemic that some people were rejecting advice to socially distance and engage in increased hygiene. There can be many reasons for this, and I thought that personality may play at least a small role in it,” he added.

Blagov let his own preconceived notions and political biases drive the findings of his study, which is meant to demonize opponents of extreme government overreach.

“I knew that traits from the so-called Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) as well as the traits subsumed within psychopathy are linked to health risk behavior and health problems, and I expected them to be implicated in health behaviors during the pandemic. There is also prior research suggesting that people high on the Dark Triad traits may knowingly and even deliberately put other people’s health at risk, e.g., by engaging in risky sexual behavior and not telling their partner about having HIV or STIs,” Blagov said to PsyPost.

“Early in the pandemic, and in subsequent months, there were numerous reports of individuals purposefully coughing, spitting, or even licking door handles in public, either as a way to intimidate others or as a way to rebel against the emerging new norms of social distancing and hygiene. I was curious whether the Dark Triad and psychopathy-related traits may help explain such behavior,” he added.

Blagov’s findings were based on an online survey conducted in March, and he even admits that the data is dubious at best.

“The study’s limitations included its use of a non-random, non-probability sample of only U.S. adults; abbreviated trait measures; and newly developed, previously untested health-behavior measures. A likely unintended effect of this may be underestimating the strength of trait-behavior correlations. The results do not mean that viral disease is spread only by irresponsible or inconsiderate people. The correlations were often small, and the scientific definitions of traits are not everyday judgments about character,” Blagov explained .Even though Blagov admits that his study is based on flawed data, that will not stop public health experts – the same ones who have been proven wrong over and over again throughout the coronavirus pandemic – from using these findings to stigmatize and punish those with the courage to resist.

June 28, 1971 The Supreme Court overturned the draft evasion conviction of Cassius Clay.

Now taking nominations to replace the Christopher Columbus statue outside Coit Tower in San Francisco.

A statue of Christopher Columbus stands beneath Coit Tower in San Francisco

Christopher Columbus never stepped foot on what is today the United States. He never visited California or sailed the Pacific Ocean. And he didn’t discover America in 1492. But that hasn’t stopped American cities, including San Francisco, from erecting statues honoring the genocidal explorer. After decades of protests, the city quietly removed the bronze monument from its plinth on Telegraph Hill and put him into hiding.

All it took was the threat of a protest that never happened.

On Thursday, Mayor London Breed ordered the statue be removed from its spot next door to Coit Tower, where it stood since 1957. Her directive came after a Black Lives Matter rally, planned for Friday, promised to “pull down the Christopher Columbus statue and throw is over Pier 31” in Fisherman’s Wharf. Workers arrived on the scene with a crane, which they used to lift the statue up and carry it away before denizens could fell it themselves, withholding the opportunity to see people carry the two-ton statue down the rickety wooden Filbert Street Steps, across the Embarcadero, and toss it in the bay.

“It was removed because it doesn’t align with San Francisco’s values or our commitment to racial justice,” says Arts Commission spokeswoman Rachelle Axel. “Doing it quickly was also a matter of public safety.”

The statue has been safely placed in storage at an undisclosed location, says Axel, adding, “We look forward to engaging the community in a meaningful conversation around next steps for the statue and for the site.”

Now that Christopher Columbus has been evicted from the Coit Tower plaza, there are plenty of suggestions for replacing him, and they include a statue of another historic Italian American, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.

“Everything from a Benny Bufano statue of St. Francis of Assisi to Italian General Giuseppe Garibaldi to moving the firefighter statue in Washington Square — the list goes on and on,” said Supervisor Aaron Peskin, whose district played host to the Columbus statue until the city removed it early Thursday morning.

I have created a design that I believe symbolizes the pure essence of Congresswoman Pelosi with an appropriate view of Alcatraz in the background

Pelosi Statue



Overcoming adversity and injustice | Native american quotes ...

Martin “sardonic despair & rage” Pfeiffer(⧖)🏳️‍🌈 on Twitter ...

EachOther on Twitter: "On #HolocaustMemorialDay why we need to ...

In the USA native Americans were driven off 99% of their land and herded into so-called “reservations”, where they were subjected to some of the worst poverty and horrible living conditions in the country. Hitler planned a racial war against the Soviet Union from the very beginning of his political career in Munich.  Where did Hitler get this idea and what was his model?  There is no doubt at all where he got this idea.  It was the policy of racial war and conquest that America unleashed against the Native Americans.   The evidence here is very specific.   It is very specifically stated in Hitler’s major works and speeches as well as those of Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS.  Specific quotes are listed below as well as comments by key US leaders.


Pin on First Definition Of AmericanMasscre at Wounded Knee December 29, 1890. Chief Bigfoot at Wounded Knee left in the snow for three days to freeze before dying from the cold and his gunshot wounds. Others of his band were left to the same fate.

The Native American Genocide And Its Legacy Of Oppression Today

Blog - Dahl's Chainsaw ArtSouth Dakota is a permitless carry state. Anyone 18 or older who can legally possess a firearm can carry openly or concealed in South Dakota without a permit/license. Folks in the Black Hills will not take to kindly to anyone messing with the “Mountain Without Democrats”

Dances With Men


HC800x800I am Barking Spider, first born son of Broken Wind.


Joe Biden should have an Indian Name.

Let’s give him one, we will vote for a winner on Tuesday, November 3, 2020

An Indian, a cowboy, and a black guy sitting around a campfire. This was the first time the black guy had ever seen an Indian before and he asked him about his people. The Indian told the black guy about how his people once lived in this country and the many Tribes that had mede this country their home. The black guy says “I’ve been living here all my life and you are the only Indian I have ever seen, why is this? The Cowboy spit some tobacco juce on the fire and said “That’s cause we ain’t played cowboys and niggers yet!”

Sunday! Sunday! Sunday!

Jeff Bezos’ religious beliefs?

Of the 10 richest people, as ranked by Forbes last year, most have publicly discussed or disclosed their religious beliefs.

Bill Gates and his family attend a Roman Catholic Church. Warren Buffett, raised Presbyterian, identifies as agnostic. Bernard Arnault is Catholic but doesn’t attend mass. Carlos Slim Helú is a Maronite Christian. Mark Zuckerberg embraces his Jewish upbringing, while Larry Ellison, who was raised under Reform Judaism, no longer follows a particular belief system. Charles Koch is nonreligious, too.

Certain hints exist for the remainder. David Koch’s 1996 wedding was officiated by an Episcopalian priest. Armancio Ortega Gaona hasn’t discussed his personal religion, but his eponymous charitable foundation has donated 40 million euros ($45.6 million) to Caritas Spain, which describes itself as “the official confederation of the social and charitable action organisations of the Catholic Church in Spain.”

And then there’s Jeff Bezos.

Neither he nor MacKenzie has ever disclosed any details of their religious beliefs. The public record is similarly lacking. This is particularly noteworthy given their stature in Silicon Valley, where religion and technology have become increasingly intertwined. Its leaders’ most intense preoccupations, including transhumanism, artificial intelligence, life extension, and simulation theory, either raise or seek to answer fundamentally religious questions.

The personal beliefs of the technology industry’s leaders have proved influential too. Mark Zuckerberg, who believes religion is “very important,” has highlighted his Jewish faith in debates about Facebook’s role in American society, white nationalist violence, and Donald Trump’s presidency. PayPal cofounder and evangelical Christian Peter Thiel has favorably compared the aims of Christian theology to those of the technology industry. The work of René Girard, the Christian intellectual who developed the theory of “mimetic desire,” inspired Thiel to become the very first investor in Facebook.

The religious faith of the Bezos family, by contrast, has mostly remained a subject of scattered online speculation. Obscure websites like Christian Patriot Daily claim Jeff Bezos is Christian. The most legitimate-seeming source, a 2018 Quora post written by a former Amazon engineer, merely denies that he is Jewish.

This kind of chatter is nothing new: People have been interested in the beliefs of celebrities, major CEOs, and other public figures for a long time. But the stakes are clearly higher for the CEO of Amazon, a powerful businessman whose decisions affect hundreds of millions of people. Which beliefs might influence those decisions, and in what way, is a question of significant public concern.

So what do Jeff and MacKenzie Bezos believe?

This a tricky question to pursue because of the couple’s reticence. But it is possible to infer — from family history, public records, and biographical accounts — what their beliefs might be. A wide body of research, as well as common-sense intuition, supports the theory that the religious beliefs of parents affect, without necessarily determining, those of their offspring. And there are more than a few bread crumbs strewn across the internet.

The details of Jeff’s upbringing contain a handful of clues to begin with.

It’s unclear whether his birth parents, Ted and Jacklyn Jorgensen, practiced any religion. The aforementioned Quora post says that both were Christian, but doesn’t cite a source. When INSIDER sought clarification from the post’s author, Vivek Pai, he pointed us to an article on Answers Africa and what appears to be the family tree of Jeff Bezos on the genealogy website Geneanet. The first claims Bezos “is said to be Christian” without further elaboration, while the second doesn’t mention religion at all. It’s true, though, that his father’s surname, Jorgensen, is a common one in Norway and Denmark, both of which are predominantly Christian.

The picture is somewhat clearer for Jeff’s adoptive father, Miguel “Mike” Bezos, who appears to have been raised in the Roman Catholic Church.

At the age of 16, in July 1962, he emigrated to the United States as part of Operation Peter Pan, a clandestine program designed by a Catholic priest from the Archdiocese of Miami. The program relocated children of Cuban parents fearful of the country’s newly elected president, Fidel Castro, whose government suppressed Catholic activity on the Caribbean island. The majority of those children were Catholic.

After being placed in a Catholic group home in Delaware, Miguel matriculated to the Catholic-affiliated University of Albuquerque in the New Mexico city of the same name, where he met Jacklyn Jorgensen and later married her. According to “The Everything Store,” reporter Brad Stone’s 2013 book about Amazon, their wedding took place in 1968 at the First Congregational Church of Christ in Albuquerque.

The details of that ceremony are uncertain. But the affiliation of the venue at the time is clear. The church was founded in 1880 in the Protestant congregationalist tradition, in which each individual church operates more or less autonomously. It later affiliated with the United Church of Christ, a progressive Protestant denomination founded in 1957. “We were part of the UCC from the beginning of the denomination in 1957,” said Rev. Sue Joiner, the senior minister of the church.

According to its site, the church’s congregants “seek to reconcile with those who have been condemned and injured not only by the Church but also by society, and stand with them in their struggle for equality and justice.”

The family background of MacKenzie Bezos offers more evidence. While not much is known about her upbringing in San Francisco, both of her parents, Jason and Holiday Tuttle, appear to be active in the Catholic community of Palm Beach, Florida. A database maintained by the Palm Beach Daily News, a local newspaper that covers the town’s philanthropic social scene, shows they attended the annual gala for the Catholic Charities of the Diocese of Palm Beach in 2015, 2016, and 2017. Holiday also serves on a parish committee at St. Edward’s Roman Catholic Church, which belongs to the same diocese.

Other clues are more recent. Late last year, Jeff Bezos’ philanthropic arm, the Bezos Day One Fund, donated $97.5 million to 24 organizations that combat homelessness. Five of those organizations are affiliated with religious institutions, and each of them is Christian: Three are affiliated with the Catholic Church, and two others with the Salvation Army, a Protestant church founded in 1865.

The Bezoses’ 1993 wedding

At least one piece of evidence, the Bezoses’ official marriage record from 1993, has never been published. INSIDER recently obtained a copy from the Palm Beach County Clerk in Florida. It appears to be one of the very few public records concerning the early marriage of Jeffrey Preston Bezos and MacKenzie Scott Tuttle.

Jeff and MacKenzie Bezos Marriage Record
The marriage record of Jeff and MacKenzie Bezos. Palm Beach County Clerk

The document shows that a local minister, Rev. Richard Riccardi, officiated their ceremony at The Breakers, a luxury hotel on Palm Beach Island. A man with a very similar name, Richard Sebastian Riccardi, serves as the Presiding Bishop of the Old Catholic Church of New Utrecht, an independent Catholic denomination based in nearby West Palm Beach. Based on real-estate and business records in Florida, they appear to be the same person.

Riccardi’s denomination follows the teachings of the Old Catholic Church movement that emerged in 19th-century Europe. Its adherents reject the Roman Catholic dogma of papal infallibility, under which the Pope is precluded from committing an error regarding the beliefs and morals of the larger Catholic church. Riccardi’s church places a particular emphasis on inclusion and tolerance.

“Divorce, birth control, sexuality to name a few … are nonissues for us,” Riccardi wrote in an undated letter posted on the site of the Diocese of New Utrecht in West Palm Beach, Florida. “Some things are better left between God and the faithful and we should not interfere.”

It’s unclear what led the Bezoses to choose Riccardi as their officiant. “It is my policy not to comment on any ceremony that I am or have been privileged to perform without the knowledge or consent of the individuals in question,” Riccardi told INSIDER in an email. He didn’t respond to further questions about what kinds of ceremonies he performs.

However, the website of Rabbi Solomon Rothstein, a professional wedding officiant who conducts Jewish and interfaith ceremonies throughout Florida and major US cities, indicates that Riccardi frequently teams up with Rothstein for the latter. When reached by telephone, Rothstein said he couldn’t comment without talking with Riccardi first. He didn’t respond to a follow-up email.

What this body of evidence suggests is that Jeff Bezos was raised within a some strand of Christianity, possibly some form of Protestantism or Catholicism (or perhaps a mixture of both traditions), and that MacKenzie Tuttle was raised within the Roman Catholic Church. And that, in turn, suggests the couple chose Riccardi to officiate their wedding in 1993 because their marriage was technically an interreligious one. Less clear, of course, is whether Jeff or MacKenzie currently identify as Christian and, if so, of which denomination.

The absence of a clear answer does not diminish its significance. What Jeff and MacKenzie Bezos believe in, and how it affects their business decisions, is relevant to their customers, employees, shareholders, and clients. As Amazon grows ever more powerful, it will eventually affect you, too.


Sturgis S.D. Motorcycle Rally 8/7-16/2020

Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is a go but with major changes

By an 8 to 1 vote, the Sturgis City Council agreed to allow the 80th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally to go on this year but with major modifications.

Councilor Steve Keszler was the one opposing vote.

The Rally’s parade is not happening, contests, the opening ceremony and the popular B-1 flyover are also cancelled.

Vendors will be required to wear personal protective equipment, or PPE. If they don’t have any, the city will provide it.

Parking will be allowed on Main street, but plaza seating and open container alcoholic drinks are not allowed.

Sanitation stations will be scattered throughout the downtown area as well.

This decision comes after weeks of public comment and debate affecting motorcyclists around the world and residents of the Black Hills.

Mass-testing is being considered for the safety of the residents, but has not been approved. Each test could cost between $75 and $150 per person.

“If mass testing happens, anyone who was interacting with the tens of thousands of people that come into our community are able to be tested so that they know they would need to self quarantine or also seek treatment,” Daniel Ainslie, City of Sturgis city manager, said. “We are continuing to work with the Department of Homeland Security and state emergency office to try to get that done.”

Source, video

Stars & Bars

There will be no Confederate Flags at the Dixie Vodka 400 from Homestead-Miami Speedway today.


Gentlemen Start Your Engines!

Top 10 Reasons there is only one Black NASCAR Driver.

# 10 – Have to sit upright while driving.
# 9 – Pistol won’t stay under front seat.
# 8 – Engine noise drowns out the rap music.
# 7 – Pit crew can’t work on car while holding up pants at the same time.
# 6 – They keep trying to carjack Kevin Harvick.
# 5 – Police cars on track interfere with race.
# 4 – No passenger seat for the Ho.
# 3 – No Cadillac’s approved for competition.
# 2 – When they crash their cars, they bail out & run.
# 1 – They can’t wear their helmets sideways.

Why Thomas Jefferson Signed the Insurrection Act

With his political career in ruins after killing Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr set off to claim lands in the Southwest—and President Jefferson intended to stop him.

The Insurrection Act gives U.S. presidents the authority to deploy active duty military to maintain or restore peace in times of crisis. The Insurrection Act was invoked numerous times in the 20th century, most famously when Dwight D. Eisenhower sent the 101st Airborne Division to enforce the desegregation of public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.

But the origins of the Insurrection Act date back more than 200 years to a bizarre chapter in American history—when Aaron Burr plotted to raise an army and establish his own dynasty in either the Louisiana Territory or Mexico.

Burr, a decorated Revolutionary War officer and senator from New York, served as vice president during Thomas Jefferson’s first term. Burr had grand political aspirations, but they were dashed after he killed his rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804.

After Duel With Hamilton, Burr Sets Sights on Louisiana

Even though dueling was illegal, Burr was never arrested or tried for Hamilton’s murder, but it effectively ended Burr’s political career. With no prospects in Washington, D.C. or New York, Burr set his sights on the West, namely the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and Mexican-owned lands in the Southwest.

The details of Burr’s plot were never clear, but it involved mustering an army to invade Mexico under the pretense of a war with Spain, and then keeping the conquered land for himself. Burr thought he had an ally in General James Wilkenson, commander of the U.S. Army and first governor of the Louisiana Territory, but when rumors of Burr’s plot leaked into the newspapers, Wilkenson turned on his co-conspirator.

General James Wilkinson, the Insurrection Act

General James Wilkenson. In a letter sent on October 21, 1806, Wilkenson spilled the details of the plot to Jefferson without mentioning Burr by name. But Jefferson had already grown concerned enough about Burr’s strange activities that Jefferson had sent his own letter to Secretary of State James Madison asking if the Constitution granted him authority to deploy the army to stop a rebellion.

In his reply, Madison said no. “It does not appear that regular Troops can be employed, under any legal provision agst. insurrections,” wrote Madison, “but only agst. expeditions having foreign Countries for the object.”

Both Jefferson and Madison were strict interpreters of the Constitution and wouldn’t dare exercise authority that wasn’t explicitly written in the founding document, so they needed to convince Congress to give Jefferson that power. And to do that, they first needed proof of Burr’s conspiracy. That’s where Wilkenson’s letter comes in.

“Jefferson was looking for a legitimate source of authority on Burr’s plot and he was willing to believe Wilkenson, even though historians suggest that Jefferson knew darn well that Wilkenson was a liar with his own suspect reputation,” says John Fea, a history professor at Messiah College. “But Jefferson needed a source to move the gears to try to stop Burr, who was his biggest fear.”

Jefferson Orders Burr’s Capture

Armed with Wilkenson’s “proof,” Jefferson issued a proclamation on November 27, 1806 that laid out the plot and enjoined all military officers, both state and federal, to “to be vigilant… in searching out and bringing to condign punishment all persons engaged or concerned in such enterprise, in seizing and detaining, subject to the disposition of the law, all vessels, arms, military stores, or other means provided or providing for the same, and, in general, in preventing the carrying on such expedition or enterprise by all lawful means within their power.”

Aaron Burr, the Insurrection Act

Aaron Burr

MPI/Getty Images

“Jefferson essentially puts a bounty on Burr’s head,” says Fea, and within weeks, an Ohio militia seized boats belonging to Burr’s ragtag army and raided a private island on the Ohio River that served as a military encampment.

But Burr evaded capture and rumors continued to swirl that he was recruiting soldiers en route to the Louisiana Territory and soliciting help from Britain to establish his spinoff nation in the West. Jefferson still refused to deploy the standing U.S. Army to track down Burr and quash the rebellion once and for all, a reticence that was mocked by his political enemies, the Federalists.

“Jefferson, to his credit, says I’m not going to act unless the Constitution says I can act,” says Fea. “The Federalists take a much broader view of the Constitution. If the Constitution doesn’t outright condemn it, then it’s OK.”

Jefferson stuck to his principles and in December of 1806 asked Congress to pass a bill “authorising the emploiment of the land or Naval forces of the US. in cases of insurrection.” This legislation, known as the Insurrection Act, would take another three months to become law. When it was finally signed on March 3, 1807, Aaron Burr had already been in custody for 11 days.

So while the Insurrection Act was written expressly to foil Burr’s plot, it wasn’t used to capture him. The very first time the Insurrection Act was actually invoked was a year later in 1808, when American merchant ships in the Great Lakes flouted Jefferson’s trade embargo with the British. In response, Jefferson accused the rogue traders of “forming insurrections against the authority of the laws of the United States” and authorized the military to take action.

When Has the Insurrection Act Been Invoked?

Why Eisenhower Called in the 101st Airborne After Brown v. Board, Little Rock Nine

Minnijean Brown, 15, one of the Little Rock Nine, arrives outside Central High School, as members of the 101st Division of the Airborne Command stand ready to protect them, under orders from President Dwight Eisenhower, in Little Rock, Arkansas, on September 25, 1957.

A. Y. Owen/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

Since 1807, the Insurrection Act has been amended several times to meet different political challenges.

In 1861, Abraham Lincoln expanded the law to form the legal basis for waging the Civil War. Without it, he wouldn’t have had the authority to send federal troops into a state without the governor’s permission.

After the Civil War, the Insurrection Act was further amended to give the president authority to enforce the 14th Amendment and the conditions of Reconstruction in the South. That authority is now found in Section 253 of Title 10 of the U.S. Code, which gives the president the right to take military action within a state when “any part or class of its people is deprived of a right, privilege, immunity, or protection named in the Constitution and secured by law, and the constituted authorities of that State are unable, fail, or refuse to protect that right, privilege, or immunity, or to give that protection.”

The Insurrection Act was last invoked in 1992 under President George H.W. Bush, after Peter Wilson, then-governor of California, requested help to quell widespread riots after four police officers charged in the beating of Rodney King were acquitted.

In 2005, after Hurricane Katrina devastated Louisiana and the Gulf Coast, President George W. Bush explored expanding the Insurrection Act to place command of the region’s National Guard under federal control. Ultimately, Bush declined to invoke the act, although it was eventually amended in 2006 to broaden the scope under which the president may act under the law.